The individual financial statements of each Group entity are prepared in the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (its functional currency). For the purpose of the consolidated financial statements, the results and financial position of each Group entity are expressed in euros (EUR), which is the presentation currency of the Group’s consolidated financial statements.

In preparing the financial statements of the individual entities, transactions in currencies other than the entities’ functional currency are recognized at the exchange rates prevailing at the dates of the transactions. At the end of each reporting period, monetary items denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the closing rate. Non-monetary items carried at fair value that are denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the rate when the fair value was measured. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are not translated at the closing rate.

Exchange differences are recognized in profit or loss in the period in which they arise except for:

  • exchange differences on monetary items receivable from or payable to a foreign operation for which settlement is neither planned nor likely to occur in the foreseeable future (therefore forming part of the net investment in the foreign operation), which are recognized initially in other comprehensive income under “currency translation differences"; and
  • exchange differences on transactions entered into in order to hedge certain foreign currency risks (see note F35 Financial instruments and financial risk management for hedge accounting policies).

The main exchange rates used are:

 

 

Year-end rate

 

Average rate

 

2018

 

2017

 

2018

 

2017

1 Euro =

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brazilian Real

 

BRL

 

4.4399

 

3.9789

 

4.3073

 

3.6050

Yuan Renminbi

 

CNY

 

7.8650

 

7.8112

 

7.8064

 

7.6278

Pound Sterling

 

GBP

 

0.8949

 

0.8875

 

0.8847

 

0.8766

Indian Rupee

 

INR

 

79.9766

 

76.5611

 

80.7322

 

73.5188

Japanese Yen

 

JPY

 

125.8730

 

135.0098

 

130.3953

 

126.6917

Korean Won

 

KRW

 

1,278.2047

 

1,284.1248

 

1,298.8877

 

1,276.6749

Mexican Peso

 

MXN

 

22.5201

 

23.6551

 

22.7042

 

21.3273

Russian Ruble

 

RUB

 

79.7633

 

69.4061

 

74.0579

 

65.9317

US Dollar

 

USD

 

1.1456

 

1.1995

 

1.1809

 

1.1294